United Kingdom

Latest update

This Advice was last issued on Tuesday, 21 April 2015.   This advice has been reviewed and updated. The level of the advice has not changed. We continue to advise Australians to exercise normal safety precautions in the United Kingdom.

United Kingdom overall


  • We advise you to exercise normal safety precautions in the United Kingdom (UK). You should exercise common sense and look out for suspicious behaviour, as you would in Australia. Monitor the media and other sources for changes to local travelling conditions.
  • We assess there is a heightened threat of terrorist attack in a number of European countries, including the UK. This threat is posed by those motivated by the current conflict in Iraq and Syria. On 29 August 2014, UK authorities raised the threat level from international terrorism to ‘severe’ (level 4 of 5). Australians should remain vigilant in public places and report any suspicious activities to police. See Safety and security
  • The UK introduced heightened security screening for passengers from some countries in July 2014. If you are flying to the UK, you should allow extra time for extended screenings and luggage checks at your airport of departure. Passengers should ensure their electronic devices can be powered on at security checkpoints. Powerless devices will not be permitted on board aircraft. See Entry and exit
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Entry and exit

Visa and other entry and exit conditions (such as currency, customs and quarantine regulations) can change at short notice. You should contact the UK High Commission in Canberra for the most up to date information. Visa information is also available from UK Visas and Immigration. The Australian High Commission in the UK cannot provide assistance with visas or if you are refused entry to the UK.

The UK introduced heightened security screening for passengers from some countries in July 2014. If you are flying to the UK, you should allow extra time for extended screenings and luggage checks at your airport of departure. As part of the screening process, security officers may ask that passengers undergo additional screening procedures in which they may be asked to power up some electronic devices, such as mobile phones. Powerless devices will not be permitted on board the aircraft. The traveller may also undergo additional screening. Passengers should ensure their electronic devices can be powered on at security checkpoints. For further details on enhanced electronics screening measures, see the UK Department for Transport website, also see information about hand luggage restrictions at UK airports.

The British Government administers a very strict entry regime and you are likely to be refused entry upon arrival if you fail to comply with visa requirements. As a general guide, visas are not required if you are entering the UK for tourism and staying up to six months. Any stay over six months or for non-tourism purposes, including study, paid, unpaid or voluntary employment, or to get married or register a civil partnership in the UK, requires a visa. In most instances you will need to apply for your UK visa from Australia and you should check whether you require a visa in advance of your planned departure.

If you are suspected of entering the UK for any purpose other than tourism, and do not have the relevant visa, you may be refused entry. Australian travellers who are refused entry into the UK may be required to return to Australia. There is also a risk that other countries may also refuse admission on the basis of the British Government’s decision. This decision will be recorded in the traveller’s passport.

UK Visas and Immigration advises that if you are refused entry into the UK then you will be informed in writing of the reasons why you have been refused entry; if you have a right of appeal; and when you will be removed from the UK. UK Visas and Immigration also advises that if you have the right to appeal, you will be given details of who you should contact.

The most up to date information on UK immigration changes can be found on the UK Visas and Immigration website.

All applicants for a UK visa, including Australians, must now have a finger scan and a digital photograph taken as part of the visa application process. Please note that the majority of Australian citizens who visit the UK each year for a holiday or business trip do not require a UK visa, and are therefore not affected by this policy. Applicants for a UK visa need to complete an application online. You will then have to make an online appointment to visit a British Consulate so they can take a scan of your fingerprint and a digital photograph.

People travelling directly to or from a country outside the European Union (EU) who are carrying 10,000 Euros or more (or the equivalent amount in another currency) are required to declare the cash at the place of their arrival or departure from the EU. Under the legislation, the term "cash" includes cheques, travellers' cheques and money orders. Travellers failing to declare the cash or providing incomplete or incorrect information will incur a fine. There is no requirement to declare cash for people travelling to or from another EU country. Information on carrying money directly to or from another country outside the EU can be found on the HM Revenue and Customs website.

Make sure your passport has at least six months’ validity from your planned date of return to Australia. You should carry two copies of a recent passport photo with you in case you need a replacement passport while overseas.

Safety and security


We assess there is a heightened threat of terrorist attack in a number of European countries, including the UK. This threat is posed by those motivated by the current conflict in Iraq and Syria.

On 29 August 2014, UK authorities raised the threat level from international terrorism for the UK overall, from ‘substantial’ to ‘severe’ (level 4 of 5). This higher threat level means that a terrorist attack is highly likely. For more information on the UK’s terrorism threat level system, see the UK Government’s official website.

In the past, terrorist attacks have occurred in a number of European cities, such as Glasgow, London, Madrid, Moscow and Paris. Targets have included public transport and transport hubs, and public places frequented by foreigners. In addition, a number of planned attacks have been disrupted by European security services in recent years.

UK authorities have urged members of the public to remain alert to the danger of terrorism and to look out for suspicious bags on public transport or any other potential signs of terrorist activity.

Northern Ireland: The threat level for Northern Ireland-related terrorism, which is a separate indicator, is unchanged at ’moderate’ in England, Wales and Scotland, meaning that the risk of a terrorist attack is assessed as “possible but not likely”and ‘severe’ in Northern Ireland. In recent years, Northern Ireland-related terrorist groups have used firearms and explosives to target police and military, and occasionally commercial interests such as banks and local businesses. Civilians have been injured in these attacks.

Local information on public safety issues is available from the British Home Office's website or the British Government's Civil Contingencies Secretariat website.

Terrorism is a threat throughout the world. See our Terrorist Threat Worldwide bulletin.

Civil unrest/political tension

You should avoid all protests and demonstrations as they may turn violent. Instances of civil disorder can rapidly escalate into violence. You should avoid them wherever possible, including by carefully monitoring the media and following the advice of local authorities.

Northern Ireland: Since the 1998 peace agreement, the political situation in Northern Ireland has improved. However, we advise you to avoid the annual parades which occur in Northern Ireland during the months of April to August, especially the weeks leading up to the ‘Twelfth’ (also called Orangemen’s Day) on 12 July when tensions may be heightened. These parades may turn violent with little warning. Australians could inadvertently be caught up in violence directed at others.


Petty crime such as pickpocketing and street theft occurs at many tourist destinations, hotels, pubs, restaurants, food outlets, on public transport, including the London Underground, and at airports. Pickpocketing occurs more frequently during the summer months, but care should be taken at all times. Thieves will often operate in teams, and will use various techniques to distract you while they attempt to steal from you.

Police also report an increase in mobile phone theft in the UK. We recommend you avoid displaying your phone and valuables unnecessarily and take extra care when using your mobile phone in public. Don’t keep cash, cards and valuables in one place. Spread them out among your pockets and clothing, using pockets secured by zips/buttons or in pockets inside jackets where possible. Be aware that in a crowded environment, where contact with other people is unavoidable, thieves will try to open pockets and bags.

Do not leave any valuables unattended in motor vehicles.

You should ensure that your personal belongings are kept secure when staying in hostels.

Credit card and ATM fraud, often involving sophisticated equipment, is increasing in the UK, as is the incidence of identity theft. Take care to shield your PIN when using ATMs and when using internet cafes, particularly for internet banking. If you are suspicious of any items that are stuck to ATMs or look unusual, do not use the machine. Thieves may attempt to distract you while you use an ATM. If approached while using an ATM, cancel the transaction before speaking to anyone.

There have been instances of drink spiking reported. Do not leave drinks unattended in bars and nightclubs, or accept drinks from strangers.

Money and valuables

Your passport is a valuable document that is attractive to criminals who may try to use your identity to commit crimes. It should always be kept in a safe place. You are required by Australian law to report a lost or stolen passport online or contact the nearest Australian Embassy, High Commission or Consulate as soon as possible.

Local travel

You should only use licensed taxis and minicabs in the UK. Sexual assaults and robberies have occurred in unlicensed minicabs. Unlicensed taxis and minicabs are illegal and often target high traffic destinations such as airports, train stations, theatres and nightclubs. Only black cabs are licensed to be hailed to pick up passengers on the street. Any minicab driver who picks up customers without a booking is acting illegally. You should only use a pre-booked minicab or if hailing a taxi, it should be a black cab.

Assaults have also occurred on public transport services late at night.

Seasonal weather conditions can be extreme, including flooding in warmer weather and snowstorms in the colder months. This can affect travel arrangements, including the cancellation of airline, bus and train services. The local emergency services in affected areas will provide up-to-date information and advice to travellers.

See also our road travel page.

Airline safety

The Australian Government does not provide information on the safety of individual commercial airlines or flight paths. See instead the Aviation Safety Network website for information on aviation safety in the UK.

Please also refer to our general air travel page for information on aviation safety and security.


You are subject to the local laws of the UK. If you’re arrested or jailed, the Australian Government will do what it can to help you under our Consular Services Charter. But we can't get you out of trouble or out of jail. Research laws before travelling, especially for an extended stay.

Some Australian criminal laws, such as those relating to money laundering, bribery of foreign public officials, terrorism, forced marriage, female genital mutilation, child pornography, and child sex tourism, apply to Australians overseas. Australians who commit these offences while overseas may be prosecuted in Australia.

Australian authorities are committed to combating sexual exploitation of children by Australians overseas. Australians may be prosecuted at home under Australian child sex tourism and child pornography laws. These laws provide severe penalties of up to 25 years imprisonment for Australians who engage in child sexual exploitation while outside of Australia.


The standard of health facilities in the UK is comparable to that in Australia.

A reciprocal healthcare agreement exists between Australia and the UK. This allows for free NHS hospital and GP treatment in cases such as an accident or illness, where a need for medical care arises during your visit. It also covers treatment for pre-existing conditions that get significantly worse while you are in the UK, or that a doctor believes will significantly worsen if you are not treated promptly.

To visit a GP while visiting the UK, you will need to ask to be registered as an NHS patient at a practice near to where you are staying. Once registered, your GP treatment will be free of charge; however, costs associated with prescriptions may still apply. You should note that medical practices in the UK have wide discretion in accepting people as NHS patients.

If you require urgent medical care or hospital treatment, you should attend your nearest hospital. The hospital will assess your eligibility for treatment as an NHS patient and determine if any charges apply in line with the healthcare agreement.

To access medical care you will need to provide proof of your Australian residency. We recommend that you carry evidence, such as your Medicare card, with you.

Routine and pre-planned treatments are not included under the reciprocal agreement.

If you need to be medically repatriated the NHS will not cover this cost. We recommend you take out comprehensive travel insurance before arriving in the UK. Confirm that your insurance covers you for the whole time you'll be away and check what circumstances and activities are not included in your policy. Remember, regardless of how healthy and fit you are, if you can't afford travel insurance, you can't afford to travel. The Australian Government will not pay for a traveller's medical expenses overseas or medical evacuation costs.

It is important to consider your physical and mental health before travelling overseas. We encourage you to consider having vaccinations before you travel. At least eight weeks before you depart, make an appointment with your doctor or travel clinic for a basic health check-up, and to discuss your travel plans and any implications for your health, particularly if you have an existing medical condition. The World Health Organization (WHO) provides information for travellers and our health page also provides useful information for travellers on staying healthy.

To locate your nearest GP surgery or hospital while in the UK, you should call the NHS on 111 or visit the NHS website.

Further details are available on the Medicare Australia website.

This agreement does not cover other countries in the European Union.

Where to get help

Depending on the nature of your enquiry, your best option may be to first contact your family, friends, airline, travel agent, tour operator, employer or travel insurer. Your travel insurer should have a 24 hour emergency number.

For criminal issues, contact the local police at the nearest police station, or call 101. The national emergency number is 999. You should always obtain a police report when reporting a crime.

To complain about tourism services, contact the service provider directly.

The Consular Services Charter explains what the Australian Government can and can’t do to assist Australians overseas. For consular assistance, see contact details below:

Australian High Commission, London

Australia House
Telephone (44 20) 7379 4334
Facsimile (44 20) 7887 5559
Website www.uk.highcommission.gov.au

See the High Commission website for information about opening hours and temporary closures that may affect service provision.

If you are travelling to the UK, whatever the reason and however long you'll be there, we encourage you to register with the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. You can register online or in person at any Australian Embassy, High Commission or Consulate. The information you provide will help us to contact you in an emergency.

In a consular emergency if you are unable to contact the High Commission you can contact the 24-hour Consular Emergency Centre on +61 2 6261 3305 or 1300 555 135 within Australia.

Additional Information

For other useful information to assist travelling in this country, see:

While every care has been taken in preparing this information, neither the Australian Government nor its agents or employees, including any member of Australia's diplomatic and consular staff abroad, can accept liability for any injury, loss or damage arising in respect of any statement contained herein.

Maps are presented for information only. The department accepts no responsibility for errors or omission of any geographic feature. Nomenclature and territorial boundaries may not necessarily reflect Australian Government policy.